[Kubernetes] Kubernetes集群问题排查

1. 查看系统Event事件

1
kubectl describe pod <PodName> --namespace=<NAMESPACE>

该命令可以显示Pod创建时的配置定义、状态等信息和最近的Event事件,事件信息可用于排错。例如当Pod状态为Pending,可通过查看Event事件确认原因,一般原因有几种:

  • 没有可用的Node可调度
  • 开启了资源配额管理并且当前Pod的目标节点上恰好没有可用的资源
  • 正在下载镜像(镜像拉取耗时太久)或镜像下载失败。

kubectl describe还可以查看其它k8s对象:NODE,RC,Service,Namespace,Secrets。

1.1. Pod

1
kubectl describe pod <PodName> --namespace=<NAMESPACE>

以下是容器的启动命令非阻塞式导致容器挂掉,被k8s频繁重启所产生的事件。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
kubectl describe pod <PodName> --namespace=<NAMESPACE>  

Events:
FirstSeen LastSeen Count From SubobjectPath Reason Message
───────── ──────── ───── ──── ───────────── ────── ───────
7m 7m 1 {scheduler } Scheduled Successfully assigned yangsc-1-0-0-index0 to 10.8.216.19
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{infra} Pulled Container image "gcr.io/kube-system/pause:0.8.0" already present on machine
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{infra} Created Created with docker id 84f133c324d0
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{infra} Started Started with docker id 84f133c324d0
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 3f9f82abb145
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 3f9f82abb145
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id fb112e4002f4
7m 7m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id fb112e4002f4
6m 6m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 613b119d4474
6m 6m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 613b119d4474
6m 6m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 25cb68d1fd3d
6m 6m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 25cb68d1fd3d
5m 5m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 7d9ee8610b28
5m 5m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 7d9ee8610b28
3m 3m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 88b9e8d582dd
3m 3m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 88b9e8d582dd
7m 1m 7 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Pulling Pulling image "gcr.io/test/tcp-hello:1.0.0"
1m 1m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Started Started with docker id 089abff050e7
1m 1m 1 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Created Created with docker id 089abff050e7
7m 1m 7 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Pulled Successfully pulled image "gcr.io/test/tcp-hello:1.0.0"
6m 7s 34 {kubelet 10.8.216.19} containers{yangsc0} Backoff Back-off restarting failed docker container

1.2. NODE

1
kubectl describe node 10.8.216.20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
[root@FC-43745A-10 ~]# kubectl describe node 10.8.216.20  
Name: 10.8.216.20
Labels: kubernetes.io/hostname=10.8.216.20,namespace/bcs-cc=true,namespace/myview=true
CreationTimestamp: Mon, 17 Apr 2017 11:32:52 +0800
Phase:
Conditions:
Type Status LastHeartbeatTime LastTransitionTime Reason Message
──── ────── ───────────────── ────────────────── ────── ───────
Ready True Fri, 18 Aug 2017 09:38:33 +0800 Tue, 02 May 2017 17:40:58 +0800 KubeletReady kubelet is posting ready status
OutOfDisk False Fri, 18 Aug 2017 09:38:33 +0800 Mon, 17 Apr 2017 11:31:27 +0800 KubeletHasSufficientDisk kubelet has sufficient disk space available
Addresses: 10.8.216.20,10.8.216.20
Capacity:
cpu: 32
memory: 67323039744
pods: 40
System Info:
Machine ID: 723bafc7f6764022972b3eae1ce6b198
System UUID: 4C4C4544-0042-4210-8044-C3C04F595631
Boot ID: da01f2e3-987a-425a-9ca7-1caaec35d1e5
Kernel Version: 3.10.0-327.28.3.el7.x86_64
OS Image: CentOS Linux 7 (Core)
Container Runtime Version: docker://1.13.1
Kubelet Version: v1.1.1-xxx2-13.1+79c90c68bfb72f-dirty
Kube-Proxy Version: v1.1.1-xxx2-13.1+79c90c68bfb72f-dirty
ExternalID: 10.8.216.20
Non-terminated Pods: (6 in total)
Namespace Name CPU Requests CPU Limits Memory Requests Memory Limits
───────── ──── ──────────── ────────── ─────────────── ─────────────
bcs-cc bcs-cc-api-0-0-1364-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
bcs-cc bcs-cc-api-0-0-1444-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
fw fw-demo2-0-0-1519-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
myview myview-api-0-0-1362-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
myview myview-api-0-0-1442-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
qa-ts-dna ts-dna-console3-0-0-1434-index0 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4294967296 (6%) 4294967296 (6%)
Allocated resources:
(Total limits may be over 100%, i.e., overcommitted. More info: http://releases.k8s.io/HEAD/docs/user-guide/compute-resources.md)
CPU Requests CPU Limits Memory Requests Memory Limits
──────────── ────────── ─────────────── ─────────────
6 (18%) 6 (18%) 25769803776 (38%) 25769803776 (38%)
No events.

1.3. RC

1
kubectl describe rc mytest-1-0-0 --namespace=test
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
[root@FC-43745A-10 ~]# kubectl describe rc mytest-1-0-0 --namespace=test  
Name: mytest-1-0-0
Namespace: test
Image(s): gcr.io/test/mywebcalculator:1.0.1
Selector: app=mytest,appVersion=1.0.0
Labels: app=mytest,appVersion=1.0.0,env=ts,zone=inner
Replicas: 1 current / 1 desired
Pods Status: 1 Running / 0 Waiting / 0 Succeeded / 0 Failed
No volumes.
Events:
FirstSeen LastSeen Count From SubobjectPath Reason Message
───────── ──────── ───── ──── ───────────── ────── ───────
20h 19h 9 {replication-controller } FailedCreate Error creating: Pod "mytest-1-0-0-index0" is forbidden: limited to 10 pods
20h 17h 7 {replication-controller } FailedCreate Error creating: pods "mytest-1-0-0-index0" already exists
20h 17h 4 {replication-controller } SuccessfulCreate Created pod: mytest-1-0-0-index0

1.4. NAMESPACE

1
kubectl describe namespace test
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
[root@FC-43745A-10 ~]# kubectl describe namespace test  
Name: test
Labels: <none>
Status: Active

Resource Quotas
Resource Used Hard
--- --- ---
cpu 5 20
memory 1342177280 53687091200
persistentvolumeclaims 0 10
pods 4 10
replicationcontrollers 8 20
resourcequotas 1 1
secrets 3 10
services 8 20

No resource limits.

1.5. Service

1
kubectl describe service xxx-containers-1-1-0 --namespace=test
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
[root@FC-43745A-10 ~]# kubectl describe service xxx-containers-1-1-0 --namespace=test  
Name: xxx-containers-1-1-0
Namespace: test
Labels: app=xxx-containers,appVersion=1.1.0,env=ts,zone=inner
Selector: app=xxx-containers,appVersion=1.1.0
Type: ClusterIP
IP: 10.254.46.42
Port: port-dna-tcp-35913 35913/TCP
Endpoints: 10.0.92.17:35913
Port: port-l7-tcp-8080 8080/TCP
Endpoints: 10.0.92.17:8080
Session Affinity: None
No events.

2. 查看容器日志

1、查看指定pod的日志

1
2
3
kubectl logs <pod_name>

kubectl logs -f <pod_name> #类似tail -f的方式查看

2、查看上一个pod的日志

1
kubectl logs -p <pod_name>

3、查看指定pod中指定容器的日志

1
kubectl logs <pod_name> -c <container_name>

4、kubectl logs –help

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
[root@node5 ~]# kubectl logs --help  
Print the logs for a container in a pod. If the pod has only one container, the container name is optional.
Usage:
kubectl logs [-f] [-p] POD [-c CONTAINER] [flags]
Aliases:
logs, log

Examples:
# Return snapshot logs from pod nginx with only one container
$ kubectl logs nginx
# Return snapshot of previous terminated ruby container logs from pod web-1
$ kubectl logs -p -c ruby web-1
# Begin streaming the logs of the ruby container in pod web-1
$ kubectl logs -f -c ruby web-1
# Display only the most recent 20 lines of output in pod nginx
$ kubectl logs --tail=20 nginx
# Show all logs from pod nginx written in the last hour
$ kubectl logs --since=1h nginx

3. 查看k8s服务日志

3.1. journalctl

在Linux系统上systemd系统来管理kubernetes服务,并且journal系统会接管服务程序的输出日志,可以通过systemctl status 或journalctl -u -f来查看kubernetes服务的日志。

其中kubernetes组件包括:

k8s组件 涉及日志内容 备注
kube-apiserver
kube-controller-manager Pod扩容相关或RC相关
kube-scheduler Pod扩容相关或RC相关
kubelet Pod生命周期相关:创建、停止等
etcd

3.2. 日志文件

也可以通过指定日志存放目录来保存和查看日志

  • –logtostderr=false:不输出到stderr
  • –log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes:日志的存放目录
  • –alsologtostderr=false:设置为true表示日志输出到文件也输出到stderr
  • –v=0:glog的日志级别
  • –vmodule=gfs=2,test=4:glog基于模块的详细日志级别

4. 常见问题

4.1. Pod状态一直为Pending

1
kubectl describe <pod_name> --namespace=<NAMESPACE>

查看该POD的事件。

  • 正在下载镜像但拉取不下来(镜像拉取耗时太久)[一般都是该原因]
  • 没有可用的Node可调度
  • 开启了资源配额管理并且当前Pod的目标节点上恰好没有可用的资源

解决方法:

  1. 查看该POD所在宿主机与镜像仓库之间的网络是否有问题,可以手动拉取镜像
  2. 删除POD实例,让POD调度到别的宿主机上

4.2. Pod创建后不断重启

kubectl get pods中Pod状态一会running,一会不是,且RESTARTS次数不断增加。

一般原因为容器启动命令不是阻塞式命令,导致容器运行后马上退出。

非阻塞式命令:

  • 本身CMD指定的命令就是非阻塞式命令
  • 将服务启动方式设置为后台运行

解决方法:

1、将命令改为阻塞式命令(前台运行),例如:zkServer.sh start-foreground

2、java运行程序的启动脚本将 nohup xxx &的nobup和&去掉,例如:

1
nohup JAVA_HOME/bin/java JAVA_OPTS -cp $CLASSPATH com.cnc.open.processor.Main &

改为:

1
JAVA_HOME/bin/java JAVA_OPTS -cp $CLASSPATH com.cnc.open.processor.Main

文章参考《Kubernetes权威指南》

0%